There are catalog programs for the PC and the MAC. Some are costly, and some are free. Just do a search for software catalog, disk catalog, or other combinations.
The catalog program will catalog any directory, including the entire PC files, DVD's including music, etc. You open the program once you have everything cataloged and you can word search, then open the directory that the information is in and open the file/document that you want.
In the past couple months I was having some external hard drive problems and I was concerned that I was going to lose all of the pictures we had taken on our 4600+ mile trip. Trust me, DW is the camera manager and we have 1000's of pictures. So I started putting the files on DVD. I ended up with about 25 DVD's with folder after folder after folder of pictures.
I paid for a program called Disk Catalog Maker
for MAC. I cataloged every DVD and the end results is that each DVD is now indexed in the software program with a main title, folder, sub folders, and down to the item level. I labeled the DVD's "Pictures-01 through Pictures-25."
The program has a search function. For example if I search in the Disk Catalog Maker search box for "flower" (without quotes) it will find all of DW's pictures on flowers and tell me what DVD they are on. When the DVD is inserted a preview pane is available also.
Scanned receipts could be filed in one folder and a title assigned to each receipt. A catalog program would show the receipt when needed.
Anyhow, that is one way to organize your files on a computer.
Another way is a spreadsheet where you enter all the information as you want it. Sorting can be done by any column and only your imagination as to what you want for columns is the limit.
For the PC I just did a search on "disk catalog software" without the quotes and there is a lot of software for the PC crowd.