You should be able to do it, but you will need to determine that the wire size is adequate for both the increased amperage and the increased voltage drop that comes with it. You will also need to determine whether the charge controller can handle the additional amperage. One limiting factor with doing a swap-out is that 12V solar modules don't go much higher than 140 Watts, which means that it might make more sense to add a module instead of replacing the original.
Tom - KK8M -Warren, Michigan
MI Licensed Electrician, ISA Level 2 Certified I&C Tech, UL Certified PV Installer, Organic "Olla Irrigation" Gardener and bona fide Schlepper