I have an aFe system. I have been very anal about trying to quantify the benefits.
cost - when the local dodge dealers more than double the cost of paper throwaway airfilters to $55, I started shopping.
washable/reusable seemed the best way to go. I started researching, and everyone agreed, that the stock airbox and tube was restrictive.
so - financially, spending 400ish on a CAI would take about 8 air filters to pay off.
fuel economy - I noticed about a 10% increase with the trailer attached (read from 10 mpg to 11 mpg). So, on my 06 coast to coast trip, I saved 120 bucks. Now down to 6 filter changes. Without the trailer 2-3 Mpg increase seems to be consistant. so , for every tank, I get a little further down the road so saving even at 5 bucks a tank, Every 10 tanks or so, I have bought back another filter.
Power hasn't been notably different, I can pull some hills faster than I used to (and have retro-fitted back to stock for same run to confirm). Its not neck snapping changes, but they are there.
Sound - noise has increase, but thats not a bad thing
Throttle response/turbo spooling- is noticeable.
I have washed my filter 5 times now, I do it more often because it doesn't cost me anything to do so. In reality, I think that it is now paid for after a year and a half after installation.